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Storage & disposal of redundant mercury ‐ Bibliography

Revised – Oct 2009

Notes for users:

IKIMP is independent knowledge exchange initiative led by the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, and has no commercial interests. The convenors of IKIMP (Department of Earth Sciences, Oxford University) are not responsible for the content of any of the publications referred to below. Any views expressed in the publications listed should be considered as those of the authors or organisations involved and not of IKIMP. The inclusion or omission of any one publication does not imply that any view is held by IKIMP.

This list is intended to a guide to electronic sources of information on mercury storage and disposal. Further suggestions for the inclusion of relevant publications should be sent to ikimp@earth.ox.ac.uk.

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES

  1. UNEP Global Mercury Partnership on Supply and Storage
  2. BiPRO study for the European Commission, 2009

POLICY ADVISORIES AND INSTRUMENTS

Europe

  1. Regulation 1102/08 on the banning of exports of metallic mercury and certain mercury compounds and mixtures and the safe storage of metallic mercury
  2. European Commission Recommendation, December 2008, on the safe storage of metallic mercury no longer used in the chlor‐alkali industry
  3. European Community Mercury Strategy (includes 2011 export ban).
  4. UNEP Governing Council Decision to encourage safe storage options to be developed. 25th Meeting, February 2009.
  5. Mercury storage in Europe and Germany. Regulations and General Conditions: Presentation by T. Brasser, GRS Germany.

United States

  1. Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008

CHLORINE INDUSTRY RESPONSE TO CURRENT PUBLIC POLICY

  1. Eurochlor Question and Answer document on safe storage, February 2008
  2. Industry response to the European Commission Recommendation, December 2008, on the safe storage of metallic mercury no longer used in the chlor‐alkali industry

SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGIES/SOLUTIONS PROPOSED

Placement of elemental mercury in deep salt mines

  1. Presentations at Asian Mercury Storage Workshop, March 2009

Storage and chemical stabilisation technologies

  1. Mercury Safety Deposit: MERSADE

Chemical stabilisation of elemental mercury

  1. Zhang, J. and Bishop, P.L. (2002) Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of mercury‐containing wastes using reactivated carbon and Portland cement. J. Hazardous Materials B02:199‐212. doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00019-5
  2. Svensson, M. (2006) Mercury Immobilization: A Requirement for Permanent Disposal of Mercury Waste in Sweden.

Stabilisation technologies are described on the following company websites:

  1. Bethlehem Apparatus Company

FLOWS AND AMOUNTS FOR STORAGE

European Union

  1. EC‐commissioned report, 2006 Mercury Flows and Safe Storage of Surplus Mercury
  2. Country responses to the EC consultation on the implementation of the EC Mercury Strategy
  3. EC‐commissioned report, 2008 Options for reducing mercury use in products and applications, and the fate of mercury already circulating in society. Final Report, December 2008
  4. Mukherjee, A.B.; Zevenhoven, R.; Brodersen, J. Hylander, L.D. and Bhattacharya, P. (2004) Mercury in waste in the European Union: sources, disposal methods and risks. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 42: 155‐182. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.02.009

United States

  1. US Minerals Yearbook, 2007 (also contains worldwide primary production data)

For Asia

  1. Assessment of Excess Mercury in Asia: 2010-2050

Worldwide

  1. EC‐commissioned report, 2004, Mercury Flows in Europe and the World: The Impact of Decommissioned Chlor‐Alkali Plants

REGIONAL/COUNTRY‐SPECIFIC STORAGE/DISPOSAL APPRAISALS

Asia

  1. Development of Options Analysis and Feasibility Study for the Long term Storage of Mercury (Draft of the UNEP Asian Mercury Storage Group)

Sweden

  1. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2003) A Safe Mercury Repository. A translation of the Official Report SOU 2001: 58. Report 8105. January 2003.
  2. Government of Sweden (2009) Press release on the results of a Government inquiry recommending export of mercury waste to elsewhere in the European Union

Philippines

  1. Ban Toxics! Terminal Storage Options for Mercury Wastes in the Philippines

United States

  1. SAIC (2005). Economic and Environmental Analysis of Technologies to Treat Mercury and Dispose in a Waste Containment Facility, prepared for Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, prepared by Science Applications International Corporation, Germantown, Maryland, April 2005.
  2. Defense National Stockpile Center Mercury Management Environmental Impact Statement
  3. The Long‐Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury EIS (Mercury Storage EIS)
  4. Quicksilver Caucus (2003) Mercury Stewardship Storage of Mercury

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